.NET (C#)


1. Two interfaces to access the same data


Leanxcale is a SQL database with NoSQL characteristics. It is a relational key-value database, and provides access to the same data through two independent APIs:

  1. A 2003 ANSI SQL interface: It is powerful and easy to use, but can be slow. It is most suitable for complex queries (e.g. multijoin queries)

  1. A proprietary key-value interface called KiVi. It is fast and provides all functionality except for JOINs. It is most suitable for simpler queries where the overhead of SQL would be too costly (e.g. updates or inserts)

Both interfaces interact with the same data, and can even be part of the same transactions.

2. SQL


2.1. Prerequisites

The SQL interface in LeanXcale is exposed to C# through our ODBC connector, so you’ll need to install it first. Please, refer to the documentation to install the ODBC connector for Windows or Linux.

2.2. Quick Start

2.2.1. Connecting to LeanXcale

The first thing to do is connect to the database using the same DSN name we put in odbc.ini/.odbc.ini file in previous steps:

      string connetionString = "DSN=myodbc_test_dsn";
      OdbcConnection connection = new OdbcConnection(connetionString);

Remember that C# will automatically close the connection when your script ends, but you can close it by hand if you need so:


2.2.2. Creating a table

To create a new table in LeanXcale, you can use the following code:

      command = new OdbcCommand("CREATE TABLE persons (socialsecurity VARCHAR(15),"
            + "firstname VARCHAR(40), lastname VARCHAR(40), city VARCHAR(50),"
            + "PRIMARY KEY(socialsecurity))", connection);


2.2.3. Inserting, updating and deleting

Inserting one Record:

Inserting one row is a very easy task:

      command = new OdbcCommand("INSERT INTO persons (socialsecurity, firstname, lastname, city)"
               + "VALUES ('728496923-J', 'John', 'Smith', 'San Francisco')", connection);


Or with prepared statements:

      command = new OdbcCommand("INSERT INTO persons (socialsecurity, firstname, lastname, city)"
             + "VALUES (?, ?, ?, ?)", connection);
      command.Parameters.Add("@ss", OdbcType.VarChar).Value = "7691241241-Z";
      command.Parameters.Add("@fn", OdbcType.VarChar).Value = "Carl";
      command.Parameters.Add("@ln", OdbcType.VarChar).Value = "Parson";
      command.Parameters.Add("@ct", OdbcType.VarChar).Value = "New York";

Updating a Record:
      command = new OdbcCommand("UPDATE persons"
               + " SET city = 'Madrid'"
               + " WHERE city = 'San Francisco'", connection);

Deleting a Record:
      command = new OdbcCommand("DELETE FROM persons"
               + " WHERE city = 'New York'", connection);


2.2.4. Reading and scanning Data

      command = new OdbcCommand("SELECT * FROM persons"
               + " WHERE city = 'Madrid'", connection);

      OdbcDataReader reader = command.ExecuteReader();
      while (reader.Read())
        Console.WriteLine("Social security number: {0}", reader[0]);
        Console.WriteLine("First name: {0}", reader[1]);
        Console.WriteLine("Last name: {0}", reader[2]);
        Console.WriteLine("City: {0}", reader[3]);

3. KiVi


3.1. Install

You can install the NuGet package using the Visual Studio NuGet Package Manager. You can open it right-clicking over your project, then clicking "Manage NuGet Packages…​":

Visual Studio NuGet package install 1

Once the NuGet Package Manager opens, you can click on the gear icon to add our repository to the project:

Visual Studio NuGet package install 2

On the screen that appears, you can see your current repositories. To add the LeanXcale .NET repository, click on the green (+) icon at the top right:

Visual Studio NuGet package install 3

That will create a new row, and you have to put the LeanXcale Repository and https://nexus.leanxcale.com/repository/nuget-hosted/ as values and click the Update and OK buttons:

Visual Studio NuGet package install 4

Once you’ve added the LeanXcale Repository to Visual Studio, choose it in the package manager at the top-right and then install the version that matches your LeanXcale version by clicking on the arrow at the side of the number as in this image:

NuGet Install 5

If Visual Studio warns you that it’s about to make changes to your solution, just click the "OK" button:

Visual Studio NuGet package install 6

If you prefer installing the driver from the Package Manager command line or the .NET CLI, you can do it too:

// Package Manager
PM> Install-Package LeanXcale.KiVi.NET.Driver -Version 1.5.4

> dotnet add package LeanXcale.KiVi.NET.Driver --version 1.5.4

If you prefer downloading the driver by hand to install it by other means, you can do it in our Drivers page, looking for .NET (C#) KiVi Direct API (nupkg).

After you’ve installed the NuGet package, you must install the platform specific driver. We have drivers for Windows and Linux.

3.1.1. Windows Installation

Download the .NET (C#) KiVi Direct API for Windows from our Drivers page and execute the file:

It will install the Visual C++ Redistributable libraries if you don’t have them installed:

Visual C++ Redistributable x64 Install

Just click on "I agree" and then on "Install".

If you get a screen like this, don’t worry and click "Close", as it means that you already have the libraries installed:

Visual C++ Redistributable x64 Already installed

After that, the Windows driver for LeanXcale starts to install. Just click "Next" on the following screens accepting the default values:

Windows Driver Install 1
Windows Driver Install 2
Windows Driver Install 3
Windows Driver Install 4

To finish the installation process, click "Close".

You will need to add the installation path (C:\Program Files\Leanxcale\lx-odbc-driver if you didn’t change it) to the PATH system environment variable. To do so, open the Control Panel and go to the Environment Variables dialog:

Edit the system environment variable 1
Edit the system environment variable 2

Double-click over "Path" in "System variables":

Edit the system environment variable 3

And add the new value:

Edit the system environment variable 4

3.1.2. Linux Installation

  1. Download Leanxcale Development Libraries from the Drivers page and unpack it.

  2. Copy the libraries libphpcpp.so, libckvapi.so and libcppkvapi.so to your system path or add them to LD_LIBRARY_PATH. In Ubuntu you could do:

    sudo cp libphpcpp* /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu
    sudo cp libckvapi* /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu
    sudo cp libcppkvapi* /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu

3.2. Quick Start

With this C# driver you’ll be using the LeanXcale KiVi proprietary key-value interface, so you get the full speed while reading, inserting and updating information without the SQL overhead. You’ll be using the KiVi .NET Direct API. You can read the API here.

The first thing you’ll need to do to start using the API in your application is start "using" it:

using lxapi;

3.2.1. Connecting and starting a session

In order to connect to the KiVi API for LeanXcale you’ll need some basic information:

  • If you are using LeanXcale as a Cloud Service, you can find the IP or hostname for your instance in the LeanXcale Cloud Console.

  • If you’re using LeanXcale on-premise, you can use the information from your installation.

In our examples we will use these parameters:

  • IP / hostname:

  • KiVi port: 44000

We will connect using this piece of code:

                string ip = "";
                string port = "44000";

                Connection.dial("", ip, port);

Note that it is only possible to have one active session with the KiVi API.

In the next examples we will not include the session creation, but this is needed in all of them to be able to connect to LeanXcale.

3.2.2. Creating a table and its indexes

To create a new table in LeanXcale and add indexes to it, you can use the following code:

                Session session = new Session();

                string tablename = "db-NOAUTH-PERSON";
                string ufmt = "l[k]sssssssyffm";
                string[] fnames = { "personId", "dni", "name", "lastName", "address", "phone",
                        "email", "comment", "birthday", "weight", "height", "photo" };
                session.createTable(tablename, ufmt, fnames);

                // Non unique
                ushort[] phoneposition = { 5 };
                session.createIndex(tablename, "phoneidx", 1, phoneposition);

                ushort[] dniposition = { 1 };
                session.createIndex(tablename, "dniidx", 1, dniposition, (int)IndexCreationFlags.IDXUNIQ);


The variable ufmt defines the structure of the table. To see how you can define the structure of your tables, give a look at the section KiVi Tuple Format below.

As you can see in the API documentation, you’re specifying in the parameters:

  • the name of the table

  • the name of the index to create

  • the number of columns to index

  • the position of columns to index

  • an optional parameter with the index type. If left unspecified, it will be a standard index. The other index types you can specify are constants defined in IndexCreationFlags.

3.2.3. Inserting, updating and deleting

Inserting one Record:
                session = new Session();
                Table table = new Table(session, tablename);

                int jimbirthday = (int)(new DateTimeOffset(new DateTime(2010, 12, 12)).ToUnixTimeSeconds() / 86400);
                object[] jimrow = { 0, null, "Jim", "Doe", "No comments",
                        "Mulholland Drive", null, null, jimbirthday, 50, 3.26, null };

                // With Builder
                TupleBuilder builder = new TupleBuilder(table);

                int johnbirthday = (int)(new DateTimeOffset(new DateTime(1975, 1, 1)).ToUnixTimeSeconds() / 86400);
                object[] johnrow = { 1, "123456789A", "John", "Doe", "No comments",
                        "Mulholland Drive", "555333695", "johndoe@nowhere.no", johnbirthday, 70, 1.79, null };
Insert using a Sequence:
                session.createSequence("seq", 100, 2, 10);// start at 2, increment by 10

                ulong next_value = session.seqNextValue("seq");
                Console.WriteLine("Next value: {0}", next_value);
                // reuse builder
                builder.add(0, next_value).add(1, "912345678B").add(2, "Jane");
                int janebirthday = (int)(new DateTimeOffset(new DateTime(1972, 10, 7)).ToUnixTimeSeconds() / 86400);
                builder.add(6, "0034698765432").add(7, "janedoe@lx.com").add(8, janebirthday)
                       .add(9, 75).add(10, 1.79);


Updating a Record:
                builder.add(9, 62.7); // change weight


Deleting a Record:
                key = new TupleBuilder("l[k]").add(0, 2).buildKey(table);

                Console.WriteLine("simpleDelete end");
Delete with a Filter:
                // Console.WriteLine("delete");
                // table = new Table(session, tablename);
                // TupleBuilder keyBuilder = new TupleBuilder("l[k]");

                // scan = table.scan(new ScanProperties(table).maxrows(2), 0);

                // scan.begin();
                // tuple = scan.next();
                // while (tuple != null)
                // {
                //   keyBuilder.add(0, tuple.getLong(0));
                //   table.delete(keyBuilder.buildKey(table));
                //   tuple = scan.next();
                // }

                // scan.end();

                // session.end();
                // Console.WriteLine("delete end");

3.2.4. Reading and scanning Data

Getting a Data Row directly by Key:
                session = new Session();
                table = new Table(session, tablename);

                lxapi.Tuple key = new TupleBuilder("l[k]").add(0, 2).buildKey(table);

                lxapi.Tuple tableTuple = table.get(key);
                for (int inx = 0; inx < table.info.numOfFields(); inx++)
                    if (!tableTuple.isNull(inx) && !tableTuple.isIgnore(inx))
                        Console.WriteLine("Field #{0} -> {1}", inx, tableTuple.getString(inx));
Simple SCAN with basic options:
                session = new Session();
                table = new Table(session, tablename);

                Scan scan = table.scan(new ScanProperties(table).maxrows(2), 0);

                lxapi.Tuple tuple = scan.next();
                int count = 0;
                while (tuple != null)
                    tuple = scan.next();
                if (count != 2)
                    throw new Exception("Not the expected num of rows but " + count);

                Console.WriteLine("basicScan end");
Scan a Table using a Secondary Index:
                lxapi.Index index = new lxapi.Index(table, "dniidx");

                lxapi.Tuple min = new TupleBuilder("s[k]").add(0, "111111111Q").build(index);

                ScanProperties properties = new ScanProperties(index).skRange(min, null, 0);

                scan = index.scan(properties, 0);

                Console.WriteLine("indexScan end");
Advanced Finding and Filtering:

The following example show how to define a pipeline with a filter.

                Expression expr = Expression.fieldFloat(9).op(Expression.Op.KVLE, new Expression((double)70));

                ScanProperties properties2 = new ScanProperties(table).addPredicate(expr).maxrows(10);

                table.scan(properties2, 0);
                Console.WriteLine("filter end");

The project may also include operations over the fields to be retrieved.

                ushort[] projection = { 1, 2, 3 };// dni, name, lastname
                table.scan(new ScanProperties(table).project(projection), 0);
                Console.WriteLine("project end");

First, you need to define an array of fields(or expressions) to be used as the group by key (if any), and then the list of aggregation expressions.

                Expression[] groupbyexprs = new Expression[3];
                groupbyexprs[0] = Expression.fieldStr(3);
                groupbyexprs[1] = Expression.fieldFloat(10).op(Expression.Op.KVMUL, new Expression((double)100));
                groupbyexprs[2] = Expression.aggr(Expression.Op.KVMAX, Expression.fieldFloat(9));

                table.scan(new ScanProperties(table).groupBy(groupbyexprs), 0);
                Console.WriteLine("aggregate end");

3.3. Appendix A: KiVi Tuple format

While using KiVi, each row that you insert is called a Tuple. When you define the structure of the table, you’re also defining the format for the tuples that will be inserted on the table.

You can specify tuple formats using format strings. A format string uses one character per field, showing its type, followed optionally by options enclosed in [].

For example, we could have this tuple format variable:

$ufmt = "l[k0]sssyffm";

Here we have the definition of a table with 8 fields whose first field is a TLong that’s also the first (0) primary key for the table, followed by three Tstr fields, one Tdate, two Tfloat and one Tmem field.

3.3.1. KiVi Field Types

Type Char to use Spec



int8_t (boolean)









int16_t (static name enumeration)






int32_t (total nb of seconds)



int32_t (days since epoch)






string field



decimals (and big integers)



JSON text



raw bytes






int64_t (time stamp in microseconds since epoch)




3.3.2. KiVi Field Options

Field options can be written together (within '[]') or separated by commas or a space:

Option Description


adds the following text up to the end of the options as a user spec for the field. Its meaning is up to the user. Must be the last option.


use the field for bloom filtering in the table.


ask for a blob field. Valid only for string, memory, and JSON fields. Data may be placed in external storage, or not. See also x.


flags the field as desired for column formats.


flags the field as gone; implementation might actually remove the data for the field, or not. Tuples still carry the field, perhaps as a null value, for consistency.


flags the field as a delta field for adding values. Delta decimals require a number.number option too.


flags the field as a delta field for min value.


flags the field as a delta field for max value.


flags the (string) field as enumerable at run time (dictionary)


flags the (string) field as case insensitive


flags the field as a key field. The position in the key (counting from 0) should follow right after the option (no spaces). If no position is given, the first unused one is used.


flags the field as a key field that is a split-point field. The position in the key (counting from 0) should follow right after the option (no spaces). Split fields must be at the end of the key.


flags the field as hashed one to compute the value of a hash field. It must be a key field.


flags the field as a hash field computed from hashed fields. It must be a key field.


shows that a string field uses the locale with the name that follows from the flag up to the end of the options or the start of the user spec option. Thus, it must be the last option but for the user spec.


flags the field as non-null


flags the (string) field as always upper case. But see the note below.


ask for a blob field with external storage. Valid only for string, memory, and JSON fields. Like b, but data will always be placed in external storage.


Sets the maximum size desired for a string or memory field, or the number of decimal positions for decimals. The first character not a digit terminates this option.


A number with a decimal sets the maximum number of digits for a decimal and the desired number of decimal positions. This is to be used for delta decimal fields, in most other cases decimals may shrink and grow in size without much trouble.